## Rational Expressions

o A *rational expression *is a ratio of polynomials:

**Examples:**

_{}

_{}

_{}

### Excluded Values

Whenever an expression containing variables is present in the denominator of a fraction, you should be alert to the possibility that certain values of the variables might make the denominator equal to zero, which is forbidden. This means that when we are talking about rational expressions we can no longer say that the variable represents “any real number.” Certain values may have to be excluded. For example, in the expression

_{},

we cannot allow the value *x* = 0 so we would parenthetically add the comment (*x* ¹ 0), and for

_{}

we would say (*x* ¹ 3) . In the case of

_{}

we would exclude both *x* = 1 and *x* = –1, since either choice would make the denominator zero.

We don’t care if the **numerator** is zero. If the numerator is zero, that just makes the whole rational expression zero (assuming, of course, that the denominator is not zero), just as with common fractions. Recall that

0/4 = 0, but 4/0 is undefined.

It is important to keep this in mind as you work with rational expressions, because it can happen that you are trying to solve an equation and you get one of the “forbidden” values as a solution. You would have to discard that solution as being unacceptable. You can also get some crazy results if you don’t pay attention to the possibility that the denominator might be zero for certain values of the variable. For example, the celebrated proof that

0 = 1 and other nonsense.